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INFLUENCE OP CERTAIN" ELEMENTS ON STEEL.
.seen in the softest products of the basic open-hearth and in the purest of acid steel. On the contrary, it is well known that the reverse is true, and that the ductility increases as the condition of pure iron is approached.
TABLE XVII-M. Data on Very Soft Basic Open-Hearth Steel.
ri •a a
'eat number. arbon by combustion; per ceJ arbon by color; per cent. hosphorus ; per cent. anganese; per cent. alphur; percen opper; percent lastic limit; pounds per square inch. Itimate strengl pounds per square inch. lastio ratio; per cent.
R Q O fM 3 02 O W P W
4060 .04 .007 .02 .024 .10 28420 45620 62.8
4800 .04 .007 .05 .010 .05 80640 40310 66.2
4030 .04 .007 .04 .021 .06 24870 46000 53.0
4032 .04 .011 .04 .029 .04 25810 46480 55.5
4971 .08 .010 .05 -.OS2 .14 20780 47140 56.8
4072 .04 .010 .04 A021 .10 27020 47000 50.4
Average, .025 .04 .009 .04 .024 .08 27323 46425 68.9
In a discussion of a paper by Webster, II. D. Hibbard* deduced the fact that oxide of iron reduces the tensile strength.of very soft metal by several thousand pounds. I cannot indorse this conclusion, but offer Table XVII-M as evidence to the contrary. These heats were made in a basic open-hearth furnace, and their regularity shows that we are dealing with a normal and definite metal and not with an accidental product. They were purposely made with the lowest possible content of manganese, and it seems certain that the steel must be saturated with oxygen. These steels are much stronger than would be expected as compared with those containing more carbon. It may be that the first increments of carbon have less strengthening effect than further additions, or it may be that the first increments of manganese have a marked weakening effect, but it is more probable that the oxide of iron increases the ultimate strength.
* Trans. A. I. M. E.t VoL XXI, p. 998